If you are a victim of sexual violence or stalking, you need to know that the assault was not your fault. Although you may not feel it at this time, you are not alone. Help and support are available for you.
Experiencing any form of violence can be traumatic for a victim. Multiple victimizations can further the trauma. To heal, it is important to address your emotional reactions to victimization, in addition to any physical injuries or health conditions resulting from the violence. If you are experiencing ongoing violence, you may need assistance in reclaiming your life. Help is available.
Although the following information may answer many questions you have, please utilize the free and confidential services of a victim advocate from the rape crisis center in your area. To do so, call 1-800-656-HOPE or go to West Virginia rape crisis centers section of this website to locate the center closest to you and obtain contact information.
In addition to providing information for victims of sexual violence and stalking, this section also includes information for victims of human trafficking and dating violence, as these crimes often involve sexual violence and stalking.
Sexual activity without a person’s consent is sexual violence. It doesn't matter where you were, the time of day, what you were wearing or if you were drinking—no one has the right to sexually violate another human being.
Sexual violence encompasses a wide range of offenses, including completed and attempted nonconsensual sex acts (e.g., rape), abusive sexual contact (e.g., unwanted touching), and non-contact sexual abuse (e.g., threatened sexual violence, exhibitionism and verbal sexual harassment). All forms of violence involve victims who do not consent, who are unable to consent or refuse to allow the acts. Most sexual violence is committed by someone known to the victim. It is a crime of power and control.
(Drawn from Stalking Resource Center, 2012)
While legal definitions of stalking vary across jurisdictions and are typically very specific in explanation, stalking can generally be defined as a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear. Stalking is serious, often violent, and can escalate over time.
A stalker might:
- Follow you and show up wherever you are;
- Send unwanted gifts, cards, letters, texts, phone messages or emails;
- Damage your home, car or other property;
- Monitor your phone calls or computer use;
- Use technology, like hidden cameras or global positioning systems (GPS), to track where you go;
- Drive by or hang out at your home, school or work;
- Threaten to hurt you, your family, friends or pets;
- Find out about you by using public records or online search services, hiring investigators, going through your garbage, or contacting friends, family, neighbors or co-workers;
- Posting information/images or spreading rumors about you on the Internet or social media sites, in a public place or by word of mouth; and/or
- Other actions that control, track or frighten you.
Remember, you are not to blame for your stalker’s behavior.
(Dating Violence Resource Center; National Center for Victims of Crime, 2012)
Dating violence is controlling, abusive and aggressive behavior against a person on a date or who is a dating partner. It may include physical, sexual and emotional abuse. If you are a victim of dating violence, you might:
- Think it's your fault;
- Feel angry, sad, lonely, depressed or confused;
- Feel helpless to stop the abuse;
- Feel threatened or humiliated;
- Feel anxious;
- Not know what might happen next;
- Feel like you can't talk to family and friends;
- Be afraid of getting hurt more seriously; and/or
- Feel protective of your dating partner.
But being a victim of dating violence is not your fault. The controlling, abusive and/or aggressive person is to blame.
(Drawn mainly from Polaris, 2018)
If you are a victim of human trafficking, you have experienced a crime involving the use of force, fraud or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. If you are younger than 18 and are made to perform a commercial sex act, it is a crime regardless of whether there is any force, fraud or coercion.
Human traffickers lure and ensnare people into forced labor and commercial sex acts by exploiting their vulnerabilities. Examples of how human trafficking may occur include:
- Victims may be groomed by and become romantically involved with traffickers, who then force or manipulate them into labor or commercial sex work.
- Victims may be sold by a parent or family member.
- Victims may be lured into sex work or compelled labor by false promises of a lucrative job/career (e.g., as a dancer, model or actor).
- Victims may be living on the streets or without any resources and be lured by traffickers into sex work or compelled labor in order to survive.
- Individuals who are addicted to drugs may be lured by traffickers into sex work or compelled labor in order to pay for/have access to drugs.
- Traffickers may exert physical or psychological control to convince victims that they have no other choice but to continue working for them.
- Some victims will, in turn, recruit and traffick other victims either because they are coerced to do so by their traffickers or choose to do so on their own.
- In some cases, traffickers may simply kidnap victims or use violence or substances to control them.
Regardless of how the trafficking occurred, you are not to blame for your trafficker’s behavior.
For more information, go to the website sections on each of the above types of violence. For related state and federal laws, see the website section on laws.
Support and Advocacy
(Adapted in part from Office for Victims of Crime, Training and Technical Assistance Center, 2007)
Victim support and advocacy may be useful to you at many stages, from immediately after the violence occurs to days, weeks, months or even years later.
A victim advocate from a local rape crisis center can provide victims of sexual violence, stalking, dating violence or human trafficking with free and confidential information, referrals and emotional support on a 24/7 basis via the center hotline. These services include but are not limited to:
- Listening and helping you identify any immediate concerns;
- Offering information—on issues such as safety options, preserving evidence, reporting options, the sexual assault forensic medical exam, risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including HIV, emotional trauma, etc.—to help you make informed decisions related to addressing your needs and concerns; and
- Supporting you in your decisions.
Beyond hotline services, an advocate can accompany sexual assault victims during medical forensic care; accompany victims of sexual violence and stalking through criminal justice proceedings; connect them to additional rape crisis center services, including support groups and supportive resources for themselves, friends and family members; and make referrals to community resources to address ongoing needs.
Connect with your local rape crisis center to find out more about specific services offered to victims of different types of violence.
Safety planning is a thoughtful, deliberate process in which an advocate (or other professional or support person) and a victim create a plan to enhance safety for the victim. Each individual's circumstances, safety needs and concerns are unique. Rape crisis center advocates are trained to assist with safety planning.
Along with considerations for physical safety, it is important to evaluate the emotional impact of experiencing the violence. Victimization can cause a range of emotional consequences—for some individuals, that might include engaging in self-harming behaviors. Optimally, safety planning looks at options for enhancing physical safety and emotional wellbeing. (See below for more on the emotional impact.)
Your feelings of security, control and wellbeing after experiencing violence can be enhanced when you identify your specific safety concerns and then plan how to reduce your risk of further physical harm and increase your sense of emotional safety. For example, if you are afraid of running into an abusive former dating partner, it would be useful to consider all scenarios where such interactions might occur and then plan on how to approach each one in a way that maximizes your physical safety and minimizes your emotional trauma.
An increased sense of safety can contribute to healthy day-to-day functioning as well as eventual healing from the effects of violence. Recognizing that your situation and concerns may change over time, planning for safety often needs to be ongoing rather than a one-time event.
If you feel that you are in imminent danger:
- Call 911. Never feel embarrassed or hesitant to call for help.
- If you are already in your vehicle, drive to the nearest police station. Tell them of your immediate or pending safety concerns for yourself or your family.
If you feel unsafe and are not in imminent danger:
- Talk with an advocate to develop a plan of action to address your immediate safety needs. The basic plan should identify: specific steps you can take to address your safety concerns; supportive persons who can help with safety and their roles in the process; specific safety strategies that may prove difficult to achieve and accommodations needed to reduce or eliminate these barriers; any essential items you may need if you have to flee your current location; and referrals to community resources to meet any urgent needs.
- If needed, implement and discuss the safety plan until you feel comfortable with it. Every individual and circumstance is different. Some victims feel safer remaining in their own homes after experiencing violence. Others feel safer if they change locks or have a friend stay with them. Still others feel best relocating. Some victims may be homeless and need safe housing. Victims who are students may want to change their dorms or class schedules. Victims assaulted by strangers may want security devices. Only you can identify what will help you feel safer.
One option to enhance safety is to seek a protective order that orders a perpetrator to stay away from a victim. In West Virginia, a victim of sexual and domestic violence and stalking can request a protective order through their county magistrate court—a Personal Safety Order (PSO) for victims in non-domestic relationships or a Domestic Violence Protective Order (DVPO).
- These are civil remedies; there is no obligation to file a criminal report (although a mandatory reporting situation may involve a report to law enforcement and DHHR).
- The petition for a protective order may be filed by any person for themselves, or by a parent, guardian or custodian on behalf of a minor child or incapacitated adult. The petition will need to explain exactly what the perpetrator has done to make the victim afraid.
- Upon filing the petition, if a magistrate finds reasonable cause to believe the offender committed the offense in question, then a temporary order can be issued.
- Under a PSO, the magistrate can order the offender to “stay away” from the victim’s home, work and school; refrain from contact; not interfere with the victim and, if the victim is a minor, any siblings or minors in the home. Under a DVPO, additional remedies can include temporary custody, possession of the residence and/or financial support.
- Filing fees may be waived.
For more information on safety planning in different circumstances, see the sections of this website on stalking and harassment, dating violence and human trafficking. Also see these WV FRIS resources:
These external resources may also be useful to victims and professionals assisting them in enhancing safety:
A rape crisis center advocate can help you understand how the violence you experienced or are experiencing can cause traumatic reactions. It is critical to address your emotional needs following victimization just as you would address any physical injuries. An advocate can aid you in identifying your needs related to emotional healing and creating a plan to address them, as well as provide referrals to counseling.
How Does Trauma Affect Victims?
A traumatic event is one in which an individual is exposed to an actual or perceived threat to life or safety--—experiencing or being threatened with sexual and/or physical violence clearly constitutes a trauma (Lash, 2017). Some victims—such as those who are stalked by their perpetrators, sex trafficked, or are in intimate partner or dating relationships with their perpetrators or are otherwise unable to escape an abusive situation—may experience multiple and ongoing trauma.
In the past, understanding about trauma from sexual and physical violence was based on accounts of individuals’ subjective reactions to it and related psychological research. Neuroscience research is now helping us better comprehend the changes in the brain that can occur at the time of a traumatic incident and in its aftermath. At its most basic, this scientific field of study explains how the human mind and body respond to threats to life/safety at an instinctive level, with survival as the goal (Lash, 2017). At the same time, the research validates that trauma and victims’ reactions to trauma remain a fundamentally subjective event, due to the unique “hard wiring” of individuals’ brains and the impact of their learning and life experiences (Paragraph adapted from Wilson, Lonsway & Archambault, 2016).
The following are examples of factors that may influence a person's reactions to a traumatic event (Santa Barbara Graduate Institute et al.):
- Severity and frequency of the event;
- Personal history;
- Individual coping skills, values and beliefs; and
- The level of support from family, friends and/or professionals.
Traumatic reactions a person might experience may include physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms such as (Santa Barbara Graduate Institute et al.):
- Changes in eating patterns, sleep disturbances, sexual dysfunction, low energy and chronic and unexplained pain;
- Depression, spontaneous crying, feelings of despair and hopelessness, anxiety and panic attacks, fearfulness, compulsive and obsessive behaviors and feelings of being out of control, irritable, angry and resentful; emotional numbness and withdrawal from normal routine and relationships; and
- Memory lapses or confusion, difficulty in making decisions, decreased ability to concentrate, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Victims may also have additional symptoms of emotional trauma—such as re-experiencing the trauma and significant/ongoing emotional numbing and avoidance (Santa Barbara Graduate Institute et al.). These symptoms may be indicators of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Experiencing emotional trauma can result in lasting negative effects in victims’ lives, particularly if left untreated.
A Few External Resources on the Science of Trauma
- Trauma and the Brain (2009 NHS Lanarkshire) (8 minute video)
- Neurobiology of Trauma and Sexual Assault (2015): In this 110 minute video, Dr. Jim Hopper explains how the brain’s impact from sexual assault can shape victims’ experiences, behaviors and memories. Also see EVAWI’s Neurobiology of Sexual Assault, 2-Part Webinar Series (2016), Part 1: Experience and Behavior and Part 2: Experience and Memory, featuring Dr. Hopper.
- The Office for Victims of Crime’s Sexual Assault Advocate/Counselor Training module (2014), The Neurobiology of Trauma and Sexual Assault
- National Sexual Violence Resouce Center’s (NSVRC) course, The Brain, Body and Trauma (2013): access via PCAR/NSVRC’s Online Campus
- Interviews with Dr. Rebecca Campbell (2012): Neurobiology of Sexual Assault (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3)
You are encouraged to seek medical care as soon as possible after experiencing any form of physical or sexual violence. While some physical injuries may be obvious, others may be less visible or not visible to you because they are internal. It is best to seek medical treatment if you are unsure of whether you have been injured.
Note that, in addition to physical injuries, victims who experience sexual assault are often concerned about the risk of pregnancy and STIs, including HIV. While the risk of becoming pregnant or contracting an STI from a sexual assault is low, you can be medically evaluated for these issues, learn about your options for care and access prophylactic treatment if needed. For pregnancy prevention, emergency contraception optimally is taken within the first 12 hours after an assault but it can be effective up to 120 hours (5 days) post-assault.
If you are a victim of ongoing physical or sexual violence or experienced such victimization in the past, you are also encouraged to seek medical assistance to address any related health concerns.
You may be eligible for compensation for related medical expenses incurred if the violence is reported to law enforcement within 72 hours after it occurred. (See Crime Victim Compensation Fund information below.)
A rape crisis center advocate can help you identify medical concerns and your options for help and provide referrals for medical assistance.
Sexual Assault Forensic Medical Exam
See the forensic medical exam section of this website for additional information.
In addition to possibly requiring medical attention for injuries and other health concerns, victims of sexual assault may have forensic evidence on their bodies and assault information that could be gathered if they are considering reporting the assault to law enforcement. (Note that a report will be made to law enforcement and/or DHHR in mandatory reporting situations.) The purposes of a sexual assault forensic medical exam are to (1) assess and address victims’ health care needs and concerns related to sexual victimization and (2) collect evidence for potential use during case investigation and prosecution.
A forensic medical exam is recommended even if:
- There are no visible injuries as a result of the assault;
- The victim is unsure about reporting or does not want evidence collected; or
- The assault was not recent.
Who Conducts the Exam?
The sexual assault forensic medical exam is ideally conducted by a health care provider specially trained to conduct this type of examination. Very often that provider is a forensic nurse, typically a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE). (Go to the forensic medical exam section of the website for information on SANEs and their training and certification.)
Exam with or without Reporting
In West Virginia, there is no statute of limitations on felony sex offenses–meaning that 5, 10 or even 50 years later, a felony case could be prosecuted. But there are limits on how long evidence of a sexual assault may remain on a victim’s body and clothing.
Today, there may be many reasons you do not want to have the forensic medical exam—you may feel that you don't want to get your offender in trouble, that it was somehow your fault (but remember, the victim is never at fault!), or that you just want to get on with your life. However, you may feel differently next week or even next year.
In West Virginia, you can have a forensic medical exam without reporting the assault to law enforcement, as long as you are not a minor or an adult who has been deemed by the courts as incapacitated. Evidence on your body and clothing can be collected and stored, giving you additional time to consider your criminal justice options. Advocates and law enforcement officers can assist you if you later decide to initiate a criminal investigation of the assault.
A sexual assault forensic medical exam of a victim usually takes place at a licensed medical facility (e.g., a hospital emergency department) within about 96 hours of the assault. During the exam, a specially trained health care provider typically:
- Obtains information about your pertinent health history and the crime;
- Conducts a physical examination (not a routine physical examination) to look for injuries and findings;
- Collects and preserves all evidence and documenting any findings;
- Collects urine and blood samples for analysis in cases in which alcohol and/or drug facilitated sexual assault is suspected;
- Treat or refer you for any medical treatment;
- Offer you prophylactic medications for the prevention of STDs and other care needed as a result of the crime; and
- Provide you with referrals for medical and psychological care and support.
There is no cost for forensic portions of a forensic medical exam. Licensed medical facilities only charge for medical treatment you may receive.
Note: Rape crisis center advocates are on-call 24/7 to accompany victims of sexual assault during the examination to provide support, information and victim advocacy.
Preserving Evidence of Sexual Assault
Depending on what occurred during the sexual assault, the DNA of your offender and other trace evidence that supports your account of what occurred might be obtained from a variety of sources, including the surface of your body, your hair, your saliva, semen or vaginal discharge, debris under your fingernails, your clothing, etc.
To preserve evidence on your body and clothing for collection during a forensic medical exam, it is best to go to the hospital in the clothing you were wearing at the time of the assault and refrain from bathing, brushing your teeth, washing your hands and urinating/defecating. However, if you have already engaged in any of these activities since the assault, don’t worry that it will “ruin” the case. Also, if you have already changed clothing, you can still collect the clothing worn during the assault and bring it with you to the hospital, even if they have already been washed.
If you believed that you were drugged before/during the assault, collect your first voided urine and take it with you to the hospital. Traces of drugs used may remain in your blood or urine. Again, however, if you have already urinated after the assault, don’t worry it will ruin the case. (See the drug facilitated sexual assault section of the website for additional information.)
Take a change of clothing with you in case your clothes are kept to test for evidence.
What Happens to Sex Crime Evidence Collection Kits?
Sex crime evidence collection kits are used in West Virginia to guide the collection of forensic evidence from sexual assault victims and preserve and package evidence that is collected.
If the assault is reported, kits collected as part of a criminal investigation will be sent to the West Virginia State Police Forensic Lab for processing.
However, kits collected from victims who choose not to report the assault to law enforcement will be sent to Marshall University Forensic Science Center (MUFSC), where they will be stored for potential future use.
- Should the decision be made later to initiate an investigation in a non-reported case, you would need to contact law enforcement and provide the kit tracking number for law enforcement. Having this tracking number will allow law enforcement to secure the kit from MUFSC.
- If an investigation has not been initiated within 18 months from its time of collection, the evidence collection kit will be categorized as "non-active." Samples collected as part of the forensic medical exam in "non-active" kits may be used for law enforcement training purposes once all identifying information has been removed.
- Even after the 18 month time period, if the "non-active" sex crime evidence collection kit has not been used for training purposes, you can still request that an investigation be initiated.
Reporting to Law Enforcement
You have options for reporting the violence you experienced. (See exceptions below.) The rape crisis center advocate can help you understand your options. Keep in mind that center services are available to you regardless of your reporting decisions. Note, however, that WV law mandates that rape crisis center advocates and certain other professionals report child or vulnerable adult abuse or neglect. (See mandatory reporting laws in the laws, WV related legislation sections of this website.)
One Option: Report
Reporting the violence you experienced to law enforcement provides the criminal justice system an opportunity to begin an investigation into the matter.
- You can initiate reporting by calling 911 or your local law enforcement agency.
- If you are a victim of human trafficking, you can also report by calling the WV Intelligence/Fusion Center at 1-866-WVWATCH (1-866-989-2824).
- If you are a college student, your college may have a campus law enforcement department (as opposed to a campus security office) to whom you could alternately report.
Another Option: Decide Not to Report for Now
For many reasons, you may be hesitant or may not want to report to law enforcement.
- For sexual assault victims: Note that physical evidence on victims’ bodies and clothing may be destroyed or deteriorate over time. Even if you choose not to report in the immediate aftermath of the assault or are unsure about reporting, you can still have a forensic medical exam to receive medical care and have potential evidence gathered in case you change your mind about reporting. (See above section on the forensic medical exam).
- If you are not sure if you want to report but want law enforcement to be aware that the incident occurred, find out if your law enforcement agency accepts anonymous reports. These types of reports allow victims and/or third-parties to share information about an incident with authorities without compromising confidentiality and filing a formal complaint.
Another Options: Make a Delayed Report
You may decide at a later point that you wish to report the violence to law enforcement. As there is no statute of limitations for felony offenses in West Virginia, they can be reported at any time. Misdemeanor offenses can be reported up to one year after the incident occurred.
To qualify for payment of medical or other related expenses incurred by victims, however, a crime usually needs to have been reported to law enforcement within 72 hours of its occurrence. (See section below on Crime Victims Compensation Fund.)
Other Legal Remedies
Whether or not criminal charges related to the violence you experienced are filed, you may have additional civil legal options depending on the circumstances of the violence. For example:
- A protective order is one civil remedy that may be available to victims, as discussed above in the safety planning section.
- Victims might also consider filing civil lawsuits for harm/loss due to the violence. Sanctions usually include the injured party receiving monetary compensation or other awards (but not imprisonment).
- Institutional settings and professional licensing codes may have policies and procedures in place that make perpetration of these types of violence a violation. For example, victims who are college students and victimized by a student, faculty or staff member of their college can report it as a violation of the college code of conduct and more broadly as a Title IX violation. (See the website section on campus sexual violence.) Victims who reside in correctional facilities, assisted living facilities, boarding schools, group homes and foster care facilities should be able to make a complaint to the facility administration. Victims whose perpetrators are licensed professionals can report them to relevant professional licensing bodies.
Crime Victims Compensation Fund
The West Virginia Crime Victims Compensation Fund provides compensation to WV victims of crime who have suffered personal injury and have incurred out-of-pocket losses as a result of a criminal act.
West Virginia residents are eligible to file a claim with the Crime Victims Compensation Fund if they meet the below requirements:
- They are victim of a crime that occurred in West Virginia, victim of terrorism overseas or victim of crime in another state that does not have a compensation program.
- Also eligible to apply: Anyone who pays for the medical and/or funeral/burial expenses of an eligible victim, a legal guardian of an eligible minor victim, an executor of the estate of an eligible deceased victim, or a spouse or dependent who suffers noneconomic loss due to the death of an eligible victim.
- The crime must be reported to law enforcement within 72 hours of its occurrence (unless just cause exists).
- The claimant must fully cooperate with law enforcement officials.
- The claim must be filed within two years of the date of the incident (for an adult victim). In the case of an application for a minor victim (under age 18 at the time of the crime), it must be filed before the minor's 20th birthday.
- The victim must suffer a personal injury.
- There must be an economic loss.
To file a claim, an application must be completed and submitted to the Crime Victims Compensation Fund. There is no fee to file and an attorney is not required. Advocates at rape crisis centers can assist victims in filing claims.
Once a claim has been filed, the following is what usually happens:
- A claim investigator reviews the case, creates a finding of fact and recommendation (FFR) and sends a copy to the victim.
- The victim may file a response to the FFR within 30 days.
- A judge then reviews the FFR, all case documents and the victim's response, if any, and makes a decision. A copy of the decision is sent to the victim.
- If the victim or claim investigator disagrees with the decision, the victim has 21 days to request an appeal hearing. The case will then be transferred to another judge for the appeal hearing, which is the final process.
Sexual assault victims can have a forensic medical exam conducted without immediately reporting the crime to law enforcement. If they choose not to report, they will probably not be eligible for compensation of medical costs through the Crime Victims Compensation Fund. Because there is no statute of limitations on sexual assault, they can later report the crime to law enforcement. If they then file a claim and a judge finds that the victim can provide good cause as to why there was a delay in reporting past the 72 hour eligibility time period, the claim could be approved. The determination is left to the discretion of the judge under the parameters of the state statute.
For More Information
For further information regarding the WV Crime Victims Compensation Fund:
- Go to the online training section of this website and click on Sexual Assault Services Training Academy (SASTA) to access a module on this topic. It can be found in the Core Courses, Sexual Violence: Providing Services.
- Review section B7. of the WV S.A.F.E. Training and Collaboration Toolkit.
- You can also check the external resource, WV Legislature’s Crime Victims Compensation Fund, for updates.
Supporting Victims – How Families and Friends Can Help
Sexual violence, stalking, dating violence and human trafficking affects not only the victim, but also their family and friends. Family members and friends often struggle to help their loved one deal with the effects of the violence, due in part to their own struggles with what occurred.
It is critical for victims that the people they talk to about their experiences of violence:
- Show that they believe them;
- Provide comfort and support;
- Listen without judging and try not to interrupt or ask a lot of questions;
- Let them make the decisions and be supportive of those decisions;
- Without the victim's permission, do not tell others what happened;
- Remind them that it was not their fault;
- Let them know that whatever they did to prevent further harm was the right thing to do;
- Encourage them to talk about their victimization with an advocate, mental health professional or someone they trust; and
- Remember that healing takes time—be patient and supportive for as long as it takes.
Dating Violence Resource Center (n.d.). Campus dating violence fact sheet. Arlington, VA: National Center for Victims of Crime.
Lash, J. (2017). Is it trauma or is it distress? Differences between victim/complainant trauma and accused/respondent stress [Unpublished paper]. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis, Counseling and Psychological Services.
National Center for Victims of Crime. (2012). Bulletins for teens: Dating violence. Arlington, VA: Author.
Office for Victims of Crime, Training and Technical Assistance Center. (2007). National Victim Assistance Academy, Track 1, Foundation-level training [Resource manual]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Polaris. (2018). The victims and traffickers [Webpage]. Washington, DC: Author.
Wilson, C., Lonsway, K. & Archambault, J. (2016). Understanding the neurobiology of trauma and implications for victim interviewing. Colville, WA: End Violence Against Women International.
Santa Barbara Graduate Institute, Center for Clinical Studies and Research & LA County Early Intervention and Identification Group. Emotional and psychological trauma: Causes and effects, symptoms and treatment. Reprinted from Helpguide.org. (2005).
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